It's well known that pollution isn't good for our health.
Reduced air quality in areas with high levels of pollution, often cities, contributes significantly to skin ageing, dehydration and inflammation.
However, there's also pollution to be found in our homes, such as dirt, dust and gases, which can be damaging to our skin too.
As we're spending less time outside, it can be tempting to neglect our skincare routine, but you shouldn't get complacent.
Dr Adil Sheraz, consultant dermatologist and British Skin Foundation spokesperson, told The Independent that air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cigarette smoke can have harmful effects on the skin.
"Household dust will contain PAH and often due to the way most homes are ventilated, the bedroom will have the highest concentrations of PAH, mostly settling in carpets and curtains," he says, adding that eczema-sufferers are particularly prone to PAH particles penetrating an already compromised skin barrier, resulting in inflammation.
His tips to reduce the build-up of PAH indoors is to opt for wooden floors instead of carpeting, dust frequently with a damp cloth rather than a duster (which will only spread the dust), vacuum regularly and have adequate ventilation, such as an extraction fan in the kitchen.
According to Dr Sheraz, cigarette smoke can also exacerbate certain skin conditions such as psoriasis and acne, and of course increase wrinkle and fine line production at an earlier age, so try to make sure your home is a smoke-free zone.
But it's not all doom and gloom, there are ingredients and products that can minimise the damage done from indoor pollutants.
1. Invest in an air purifier
Daniel Isaacs, Director of Research at a cosmeceutical skincare brand, recommends an air purifier to remove harmful airborne allergens such as mould, spores and pollen which can trigger skin irritation and flare-ups.
"This, in turn, can lead to us scratching the skin and transferring bacteria, adding to the possibility of breakouts," he says.
2. Get into a good routine
To combat the effects of pollutants, Dr Sheraz recommends following a simple skincare routine, starting off with gentle daily cleansing, using a product that won't strip the skin of its natural barrier.
He then recommends following up with a topical vitamin C to combat the effects of pollutants.
Lastly, Dr Sheraz advises using regular emollients to help restore the skin barrier function.
3. Always use an SPF - even if you're not going outside
Don't get complacent with applying SPF on days when you don't go outside. Even if you're indoors, UV rays can still pass through glass windows.
"It is well known that UV radiation will not only age and pigment the skin but can induce skin cancers, some of which may be fatal," says Dr Sheraz.
UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB rays and are more of a threat as they can cause damage even when it's cloudy and the sun isn't visible. Whereas UVB rays are more prevalent in sunny climates and are more responsible for sunburn.
He notes that normal window glass will block out most of the UVB, however, 50 per cent of the UVA will be able to pass through.
Therefore he recommends using high factor sunblock with UVA protection.